Printing Technique Part 1

Printing Technique Part 1

There is a variety of Printing Techniques that designers can use to solve problems and create visual materials.

Some are older than others, some are not as easily available as they used to be and others are much more expensive and often out of
client budget.

Regardless of the specifics or availability, all of this types of printing are still in practice today. It is important to know what we can do with
printed materials in order to select the best possible materials and processes for the project.

Types of Printing Techniques

  1. Wood Block
  2. Movable Type
  3. Letterpress
  4. Phototypesetting
  5. Offset
  6. Flexography
  7. Engraving
  8. Thermography
  9. Skillscreenprinting
  10. Inkjet
  11. Digital

1) Wood Block:-

A form of letterpress, Word Block printing is one of the oldest techniques for printing and has a long history or development in both Europe and Asia. It is a relief process in which an image is carved in reverse into a piece of wood, inked up and paper is pressed down on top of it to transfer the ink and image. It is one of the rarest forms of printing in use today, due primarily to time consumption. However, there are many sets of type still in existence that were created from woodblocks and are often used in letterpress poster printing.

2) Movable Type:-

Invented in the 15th century, Movable Type is the process of setting type by hand for printing on a letterpress machine. The type can be made of either wood or metal and letters were cut individually by called punch cutters. This style of printing was the first developed that could rapidly, a relative term produce multiple copies of lengthy printed materials and books.It remain the standard printing technique until photo typesetting came in 1950s.

3) Letter Press:-

Letterpress is still alive today, although it exists on a much smaller scale and usually only in specially shops.The process often now involve photo polymer plates that can translate a digital design into a raised plate for use with vintage presses. It has seen a revival of success in recent years in the fine art, craft and design worlds and is often used to create wedding invitations and posters. However, it remains a very flexible and reliable printing method that can be used for almost anything.

Kshitij Vivaan (Training Partner of MAAC Ahmadabad Satellite ) offers career courses in Animation, VFX, graphics, web designing & gaming for students from different cities of Rajasthan such as Jaisalmer and Pali. MAAC helps these students get the best job placements according to their skills and talents to get the best start to their Professional Careers.

Continue in next Week…….. PRINTING TECHNIQUE PART -2

Thanks & Regards
MAAC AHMEDABAD

Research & Developed By
Pooja Shah
DGWA Student

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Rigging Tips

Rigging Tips

Inverse Kinematics & Forward Kinematics

When a modeller finishes building a character, to animate the same, first we need to Rig the character. Rigging animation is a process where we bind the character with skeletal joints and controllers which allows us to pose/move the character.

The terms ik and fk refers to the most efficient rigging techniques. As an animator you need to know the best and most efficient ways to accomplish an animation. Let’s take a simple look at what IK and FK are .

Inverse kinematics (IK)

An IK handle lets you pose and animate an entire joint chain by moving a single manipulator. With IK enabled, a child within your character rig’s hierarchy can influence the movement of its parents. As you pose the IK handle, it automatically rotates all the joints in the joint chain.

For example, by utilizing IK in your character’s arms you can position your character’s hand and the rest of the character’s arm chain will automatically be calculated. Because this allows you to animate independently of your chain’s hierarchy, IK is great when you need to have your character push against a wall or keep their hand planted while the rest of the body animates.Rigging animation is a process where we bind the character with skeletal joints and controllers which allows us to pose/move the character.

Forward kinematics (FK)

To pose a character with forward kinematics, you need to rotate each joint individually to get the desired positioning.

For example, rotating a character’s shoulder changes the position of the elbow, wrist, and hand. When animating with forward kinematics, the artist typically needs to set the rotation and position of each joint individually—to achieve a desired pose. A great time to use FK would be if you’re animating a walk, because every time you translate the body forward the arms will follow.

Thanks & Regards
MAAC AHMEDABAD

Kshitij Vivaan (Training Partner of MAAC Ahmadabad C.G Road) offers career courses in Animation, VFX, graphics, web designing & gaming for students from different cities of Gujarat such as Gandhinagar. MAAC helps these students get the best job placements according to their skills and talents to get the best start to their Professional Careers.

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Raster Image File Formats

Raster Image File Formats

Raster Image File Formats

The most common Raster image file formats, the most important for cameras, printing, scanning, and internet use, are JPG, TIF, PNG, and GIF.

•JPG is the most used image file format. Digital cameras and web pages normally use JPG files – because JPG heroically compresses the data to be very much smaller in the file. However JPG uses lossy compression to accomplish this feat, which is a strong downside. A smaller file, yes, there is nothing like JPG for small, but this is at the cost of image quality. This degree is selectable (with an option setting named JPG Quality), to be lower quality smaller files, or to be higher quality larger files. In general today, JPG is rather unique in this regard, using lossy compression allowing very small files of lower quality, whereas almost any other file type uses lossless compression (and is larger). The meaning of Lossy is discussed Below.The most common Raster image file formats is the most important for cameras, printing, scanning, and internet use. Frankly, JPG is used when small file size is more important than maximum image quality (web pages, email, memory cards, etc). But JPG is good enough in many cases, if we don’t overdo the compression. Perhaps good enough for some uses even if we do overdo it (web pages, etc). But if you are concerned with maximum quality for archiving your important images, then you do need to know two things: 1) JPG should always choose higher Quality and a larger file, and 2) do NOT keep editing and saving your JPG images repeatedly, because more quality is lost every time you save it as JPG (in the form of added JPG artifacts… pixels become colors they ought not to be – lossy). More at the JPG link at page bottom.The most common Raster image file formats is the most important for cameras, printing, scanning.

•PNG can replace GIF today (web browsers show both), and PNG also offers many options of TIF too (indexed or RGB, 1 to 48-bits, etc). PNG was invented more recently than the others, designed to bypass possible LZW compression patent issues with GIF, and since it was more modern, it offers other options too (RGB color modes, 16 bits, etc). One additional feature of PNG is transparency for 24 bit RGB images. Normally PNG files are a little smaller than LZW compression in TIF or GIF (all of these use lossless compression, of different types), but PNG is slower to read or write. That patent situation has gone away now, but PNG remains excellent lossless compression. Less used than TIF or JPG, but PNG is another good choice for lossless quality work.The most common Raster image file formats is the most important for cameras, printing, scanning, and internet use.

•GIF was designed by CompuServe in the early days of computer 8-bit video, before JPG, for video display at dial up modem speeds. GIF discards all Exif data, and while GIF is fine for video screen purposes, GIF does Not retain printing resolution values. GIF always uses lossless LZW compression, but it is always an indexed color file (1 to 8-bits per pixel). GIF can have a palette of 24-bit colors, but only 256 of them maximum (which colors depend on your image colors). GIF is rather limited colors for color photos, but is generally great for graphics. Repeating, don’t use indexed color for color photos today, the color is too limited. GIF offers transparency and animation. PNG and TIF files can also optionally handle the same indexed color mode that GIF uses, but they are more versatile with other choices too (can be RGB or 16 bits, etc). But GIF is still very good for web graphics (i.e., with a limited number of colors). For graphics of only a few colors, GIF can be much smaller than JPG, with more clear pure colors than JPG).The most common Raster image file formats is the most important for cameras.

•Camera RAW files are very important of course, but RAW files must be processed to regular formats (JPG, TIF, etc) to be viewable and usable in any way. However, the point is that RAW offers substantial benefit in doing that, one of which is we can choose our settings AFTER we can see the image, and what it needs, and what helps it. The debate goes on, some cannot imagine NOT taking advantage of the greater opportunities of RAW. Others think any extra step is too much trouble, and are satisfied with JPG – my own biased opinion is they just don’t know yet. 🙂 More detail Below.The most common Raster image file formats is the most important for cameras, printing, scanning, and internet use. We could argue that there really is no concept of RAW files from the scanner. Vuescan does offer an output called RAW, which is 16 bits, includes the fourth Infrared noise correction channel data if any, and defers gamma correction. Vuescan itself is the only post-processor for these. But scanner color images are already RGB color, instead of Bayer pattern data like from cameras. Camera RAW images are not RGB (the meaning of RAW), and must be converted to RGB for any use.

Thanks & Regards

MAAC AHMEDABAD

Kshitij Vivaan (Training Partner of MAAC Ahmadabad Satellite Road) offers career courses in Animation, VFX, graphics, web designing & gaming for students from different cities such as Gandhinagar. MAAC helps these students get the best job placements according to their skills and talents to get the best start to their Professional Careers.

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