In polygonal modelling, an artist formulates a digital representation of a 3D object with a geometric screen composed of edges, vertices, and faces.
Faces are usually triangular and make up the facade of the 3D model.
Click on below Link: Polygonal Modeling
Throughout the use of the following techniques, a modeler methodically transforms a first 3D mesh into a complete 3D model:
Polygonal 3D Modeling Technique Common Box and Edge Modeling Workflows
Extrusion is a process of adding geometry to a polygon primitive and one of the primary tools a modeler uses to begin shaping a mesh.
Through extrusion a modeler manipulating the 3D mesh by either collapsing a face in upon itself or by extruding the face outward along its surface normal the directional vector perpendicular to the polygonal face.
Extruding a quadrilateral face creates four polygons to bridge the gap between its starting and ending position. Extrusion can be hard to visualize without a concrete example:
Consider a simple pyramid shape, with a quadrilateral base. A modeler might transform the first pyramid into a house like a shape by selecting the bottom of the pyramid and extruding it in the negative Y direction. The pyramid’s base is shifted downward, and four new vertical faces are created in the space between the cap and the bottom.
Edges can also be extruded. When extruding an edge, it is essentially duplicated the duplicate edge can then be pulled or rotated away from the original in any direction, with a new polygonal face automatically created by connecting the two. It is the primary means for shaping geometry in the contour modeling process.
Click on below link: Polygon Extrusion Techniques
A subdivision is a way for modelers to add a polygonal presentation to a model, either selectively or uniformly.
Because a polygonal model typically begins from a low-resolution fundamental with very few faces, it is almost hard to build a finished model without at least some level of a subclass.
A uniform subdivision splits the whole cover of a model evenly. Uniform groups are completed on a linear scale, meaning every polygonal face is subdivided into four.
Uniform subdivision helps to eliminate “blockiness,” and can be used to smooth the surface of a model evenly.
Click on below link: Polygon and subdivision mesh modeling
A uniform subdivision divides the entire surface of a model evenly. Uniform subdivisions are completed on a linear scale, meaning every polygonal face is subdivided into four. Uniform subdivision helps to eliminate “blockiness,” and can be used to smooth the surface of a model evenly.
Edge Loops: Resolution can be added by selectively placing additional edge loops. An edge loop can be attached across any contiguous set of polygonal faces, subdividing the selected faces without needlessly adding resolution to the rest of the mesh. Edge loops are used to add resolution in regions of a model that require a level of detail disproportionate to nearby geometry.
If you have been around the engineering, industrial design, or woodworking fields at all, the word bevel might already hold some weight for you.
By default, the edges on a 3D model are infinitely sharp a condition that virtually never occurs in the real world.
Look around you, inspected closely enough, almost every edge you encounter will have some taper or roundness to it.
A bevel takes the phenomenon into account and is used to reduce the harshness of the edges on a 3D model.
Example: Each edge on a cube occurs at a 90-degree convergence between two polygonal faces. Beveling those edges creates a narrow 45-degree face between the converging planes to soften the edge’s appearance and helps the cube interact with light more realistically. The length of the bevel, as well as its roundness, can be determined by the modeler.
Also referred to as “pushing and pulling vertices,” most models require some level of manual refinement.
When refining a model, the artist moves individual vertices along the x,y, or z-axis to fine-tune the contours of the surface.
A sufficient analogy for refinement might be seen in the work of a traditional sculptor: When a sculptor works, the first blocks out the broad forms of the sculpture, focusing on the overall shape of his piece.
Then he revisits each region of the statue with a “rake brush” to fine tune the surface and carves out the necessary details.
Refining a 3D model is so similar. Every extrusion, bevel, edge-loop, or subdivision, is typically accompanied by at least a little bit of vertex-by-vertex refinement.
The refinement stage can be painstaking and consumes 90 percent of the total time a modeler spends on a piece. It only takes 30 seconds to place an edge loop or pull out an extrusion, but it wouldn’t be unheard of for modeler to spend hours refining the nearby surface topology.
Click on below link: How to Model a Face – Low Poly Beginner 3D Modeling
Industry professionals know the process that goes into the production of a thoroughly realized 3D animation movie character or environment as the “computer graphics pipelines.” Even though the process is pretty complex for m a technical viewpoint, it’s very easy to understand when illustrated sequentially.
Click on below video: Beginners Guide to learning 3D Computer Graphics
In order to take an animated character from an idea or storyboard drawing to a fully polished 3D rendering, the character passes through the 6 major phases of 3D Production in Computer Graphics Pipelines:
6 Phases of 3D Production
Shading and Texturing
Rendering and Post-production
6 Phases of 3D Production in Computer Graphics Pipelines
In pre-production, the overall look of a character or environment is designed. At the end of pre-production, finalized design sheets will be sent to the modelling team to be developed.
Each Idea Counts: Dozens or even hundreds of drawings and paintings are created and reviewed on a daily basis by the producers, director and art leads.
Color Palette: A character’s color scheme, or color palette, is developed in this phase, but usually not finalized until later in the process.
Concept Artists may work with digital sculptors to produce preliminary digital mock-ups for promising designs.
Character Details are finalized, and special challenges are sent off to research and development.
2. 3D Modeling
With the look of the character finalized the plan is now passed into the hands of 3D modellers.
The position of a modeler is to take a two-dimensional piece of concept art and translate it into a 3D model that can be given to the animators later on down the road.
There are two primary techniques in the modeler’s toolset: polygonal modelling and digital sculpting.
1. Polygonal Modelling
Each has its unique strengths and weaknesses, and despite being vastly different, the two approaches are entirely complementary.
2. Digital Sculpting
Sculpting lends itself more to organic (character) models, while polygonal modeling is more suited for mechanical/architectural models.
3. Shading and Texturing
The next step in the visual effect pipeline is the shading and texturing. In this phase, textures, materials, and colors are added to the 3D model.
Every component of the model receives a different shader-material to give it a decent look.
Realistic Materials: If the object is made of plastic, it will be given a reflective, glossy shader. If it is made of glass, then the material will be partially transparent and refract the light like real-world glass.
Textures and colors are added by either projecting a two-dimensional image onto the model or by painting directly on the surface of the model as if it were a canvas. It is accomplished with special software.
Click on below link: Learn How to Add Shading and Texturing
For 3D scenes to come to life, digital lights must be placed in the scene to illuminate the models, exactly as lighting rigs on a movie set would illuminate the actors. It is probably the second most technical phase of the production pipeline, but there’s still a good deal of artistry involved.
Proper lighting must be realistic enough to be believable, but dramatic enough to convey the director intended mood.
Mood Matters: Lighting specialists have as much, or even more control than the texture painters when it comes to a shot’s color scheme, mood, and overall atmosphere.
There is the great amount of communication between lighting and texture artists. These both departments work closely together to ensure the material and lights fit together properly and that shadows and reflections look as convincing as possible.
The animation is the production phase where artists breathe life and motion into their characters. Animation technique for 3D films is quite different than the traditional hand-drawn animation, sharing much more common ground with stop-motion techniques:
Rigged for Motion: 3D character is controlled using a virtual skeleton or rig that allows an animator to control the model arms, legs, facial expressions and posture.
Pose-to-Pose: Animation is typically completed pose-to-pose. In other words, an animator will set a “key-frame” for both the starting and finishing pose of action, and then tweak everything in between so that the motion is fluid and properly timed.
Jump over to our computer animation companion site for extensive coverage of the topic.
Click on below video: 12 Principles of Animation
6. Rendering and Post-Production
The final production phase for a 3D scene is known as rendering, which essentially refers to the translation of a 3D scene to a finalized two-dimensional image. In the rendering phase, all the computations that cannot be done by your computer in real-time must be performed.
Click on below video: How Rendering Graphics Works in Games
It includes, but is hardly limited to the following:
Finalizing Lighting: Shadows and reflections must be computed.
Special Effects: It is typically when effects like depth-of-field blurring, smoke, fog and explosions would be integrated into the scene.
Post-Processing: If brightness, color, or contrast needs to be tweaked, these changes would be completed in image manipulation software following render time.
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