6 Stages of Filmmaking Production

6 Stages of Filmmaking Production

Filmmaking Production

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Evolution of Animation

Evolution of Animation

The history of animation technology showcase moving art pieces and images changed over the years – now we are in a world when computer technology and internet technology helps to create some terrific animated videos enjoyed by diverse assemblage. Let’s dive back in history, relive the evolution of animation and explore some of what’s yet to come.

Evolution of Animation in Brief


[1] Early Ways of Showing Motion (30,000 B.C. – 1500 A.D.)

Archaeological artifacts prove that we have been striving to depict things in the motion as long as we have been able to draw. Some notable examples from the ancient times, as well as the European Renaissance example, include:

1. 3,000 B.C. – Shahr-E Sukhteh

A bronze-age pottery bowl depicts goats jumping (Shahr-e Sukhteh, Iran).

Shahr-E Sukhteh

2. 1500 A.D. – Vitruvian Man

Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man drawing shows the multiple angles, implying movement.

Vitruvian Man

Click on Below Video: Brief History of Animation

[2] Animation Before Film (1600 – 1877)

With a spread of the Industrial Revolution in North America and Europe in the 18th and 19th centuries came experimentation with the machines that would make images appear to move.

1. Magic Lantern – 1603

The Magic Lantern is an image projector using the pictures on sheets of glass. Since some sheets contain the moving parts, it is considered the first example of projected animation.

Magic Lantern – 1603

2. Thaumatrope – 1824

The thaumatrope housed a rotating mechanism with a different design on every side. When rotated, you saw a combined picture.

Thaumatrope – 1824

3. Phenakitoscope – 1831

The phenakitoscope featured spinning the disks reflected in the mirrors that made it seem like pictures were moving.

Phenakitoscope – 1831

4. Zoetrope – 1834

The zoetrope was a hollow drum that a housed images on long interchangeable strips that the spin and made the images appear to move.

Zoetrope – 1834

5. Flip-Book – 1868

The flip-book reached a wide audience and credited with the inspiring early animators more than the machines developed in this era. Also known as the kineograph.

Flip-Book – 1868

6. Praxinoscope – 1877

The praxinoscope expanded on the zoetrope, using many wheels to rotate the images. It is considered to have shown that the prototypes of the animated cartoon.

Praxinoscope – 1877

[3] The Silent Era (1900 – 1930)

The early 20th era marks the beginning of theatrical showings of cartoons, mainly in France and the United States. Many animators form studios, with Bray Studios in the New York proving the most flourishing of this era. Bray helped launch the careers of the cartoonists that created Mighty Betty Boop, Mouse, and Woody Woodpecker.

The Silent Era (1900 – 1930)

1. Humorous Phases of Funny Faces – 1906

Marks the first entirely animated film, using stop-motion photography to create action.

Humorous Phases of Funny Faces - 1906

2. Gertie the Dinosaur – 1914

It is considered the first cartoon to feature the appealing character.

3. Felix the Cat – 1919

Feline Follies and Musical Mews introduced Felix the Cat often considered the first animated movie star.

4. Steamboat Willie – 1928

Featuring Mickey Mouse—becomes the first cartoon with sound printed on the film, and is the notable early success for the Walt Disney Studios, founded in Los Angeles in the year 1923.

[4] The Golden Age Of American Animation (1930 – 1950s)

During what many consider to be “ The Golden Age of animation”, theatrical cartoons became a necessary part of popular culture. These years are defined by rise of Walt Disney (Mickey Mouse, Silly Symphonies and Donald Duck), MGM, Warner Brothers, and Fleischer (Popeye, Betty Boop).

1. Snow White – 1937

Walt Disney releases Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the first animated feature to use the hand-drawn animation.


Snow White - 1937

Click on Below Video: Evolution of Animation

[5] The American Television Era (1960 – 1980s)

The animation industry began to adopt the fact that the tv continued its rise as the entertainment medium of choice for the American families. Studios created many cartoons for television using a “Limited animation” style. In the mid-80s with the help of cable channels such as The Disney Channel and Nickelodeon cartoons were ubiquitous on television.

1. Flintstones – 1960

The Flintstones releases Hanna-Barbera, the first animated series on the prime-time TV.


Flintstones - 1960

2. Yogi Bear – 1961

The Yogi Bear Show, a spin-off of Huckleberry Hound, debuts on national TV.

Yogi Bear - 1961

3. The Pink Phink – 1964

DePatie-Freleng Enterprises wins the Academy Award for the Best Short Film for The PinkPhink and continues to create the shorts for theatrical release.

The Pink Phink - 1964

4. Fritz the Cat – 1964

Fritz the Cat is released—the first animated adult (X-rated) feature film.

[6] Modern American Era (1980 – 2014)

The Computer Generated Imagery (CGI) revolutionized animation. A principal difference of CGI animation compared with the traditional animation is that drawing is replaced by the 3D modeling, almost like a virtual version of stop-motion animation. A form of animation that combines the two pictures and uses 2D computer drawing can be considered computer-aided animation.

Modern American Era (1980 - 2014)

1. The Adventures Of Andre & Wally B – 1984

This short film was the first CGI-animated film, created by The Graphics Group, the precursor to Pixar.

2. The Simpsons – 1987

The Simpsons is an American adult animated sitcom built by Matt Groening for Fox Broadcasting Company. It is the longest-running American sitcom, the longest-running American animated program, and in 2009 it surpassed Gunsmoke as longest-running American scripted primetime television series.

3. Toy Story – 1995

The first entirely computer-animated feature film was released in the year 1995.

4. BIG HERO 6 – 2014

Big Hero 6 is the first Disney animated film that is feature Marvel Comics characters.

[7] AR/VR and 360 Degree Animated Videos (2018)

Now brands and content producers are creating animated videos using latest computer technologies such as augmented reality, virtual reality and 360-degree video technology. This technology is highly experienced and helps to create immersive stories. As a brand, if you wish to grab the consumer eyeballs and be a trendsetter, then you must not have to miss on creating the brand stories using technology.

Click on Below Video: 360 VR Video for Virtual Reality


KSHITIJ VIVAN is an authorized training partner of MAAC Ahmedabad at CG Road and Satellite Road. Students from different cities such as Kota and Bikaner come here to join Maac Animation courses. MAAC also helps these students to get the best job placements according to their talents and skills to get the best start in their Professional Careers.

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7 Tips on Designing Visual Content

7 Tips on Designing Visual Content

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Selective Color Effects

Selective Color Effects

Selective Color Effects In Adobe Photoshop

Photo effects you may have seen is where a photo is modified to black and white, except for one object in a photo which is made by keeping it in color. There are different ways to achieve this type of effect. Here we explain a non-destructive way to do it using adjustment layers in Adobe Photoshop Elements. The same method work in adobe photoshop or in other software that offers adjustment layers. Below we explain steps on how to use black and white with selective color effects in adobe Photoshop.


Black and White With Selective Color Effects In Adobe Photoshop

1. Black and White Converting with Desaturate Command

Remove color using a Hue/Saturation adjustment layer. Go to your Layers palette and click on “New Adjustment Layer” button which looks like a black and white circle, then select the Hue/Saturation entry from the menu. In Hue/Saturation dialog box, drag the middle slider for Saturation to the left for a setting of -100, then click on OK. You can see the image has changed to black and white, but if you look at the layers palette, you can see that background layer is still in color, so the original has not been permanently changed.

Desaturate Command

Click on the eye icon next to the Hue/Saturation adjustment layer to temporarily switch it off. The eye is a toggle for adjusting the effect visible. Leave it off for now.

Adjusting the saturation is only one way to convert the photo to black and white, but the desaturated black and white version lacks contrast and appears washed out. Next, we look at another method that creates a good result.

Click on Below Video: Different Black & White Techniques in Photoshop

2. Converting to Black and White with Gradient Map Adjustment

Create the new adjustment layer, but this time pick Gradient Map as the adjustment instead of using Hue/Saturation. In the Gradient Map dialog, you have a black to white gradient selected. If you have any other gradient, then click the arrow next to the gradient and choose the “Black, White” gradient thumbnail.

Gradient Map Adjustment

If the image looks like infrared instead of black and white, you have the gradient in reverse, and you can tick the “Reverse” button under the gradient options.

Then click on OK to apply the gradient map.

Now click the eye back on for Hue/Saturation adjustment layer, and use the eye icon on Gradient Map layer to compare both the effects methods of black and white conversion. You see that the gradient map version has better texture and with more contrast.

Now you can delete the Hue/Saturation adjustment layer by dragging it into the trash icon on the layer palette.

3. Understand Layer Masks

Now we add color in the photo by restoring color to the apples. Because we used an adjustment the layer, we still have the color image in the background layer. Now we are going to paint the adjustment layer’s mask to show the color in the background layer below.

Take a look at layers palette and see that the gradient map layer has two thumbnail icons. The one which is on the left indicates the type of adjustment layer, and you can double-click on it to change its adjustment. The thumbnail on the right is the layer mask, which is going to be all white at that moment. The layer mask erases the adjustment by painting on it. White reveals the adjustment, black blocks it perfectly done, and shades of grey partially reveal it. We are going to reveal the color of apples from the background layer by painting on the layer mask with black.

4. Restoring Color of the Apples by Painting the Layer Mask

In the photo zoom in on the apple portion, so they fill your workspace. Now Activate the brush tool, pick an appropriately sized brush and set opacity to100%. Set the foreground color to black. Now click on layer mask thumbnail in the layers palette and then start painting over the apples. This is an excellent time to use the graphics tablet if you have one.

For paint, use the bracket keys to increase or decrease the size of the brush.

Click on Below Video: Painting with a Layer Mask


5. Cleaning up Edges by Painting in the Layer Mask

If you are human, you probably paint color onto few areas that you didn’t intend to. Just switch the foreground color to white by pressing X and erase away the color back to grey using the small brush. Zoom in close and clean up edges using the shortcuts you have learned.

When you think you are done, then set your zoom level back to 100%. You can do this by double-clicking on the zoom tool. If the color edges look too harsh, you can soften them slightly by going to Filter > Blur > Gaussian Blur and set a blur radius of 1-2 pixels.

Painting in the Layer Mask

6. Add the Noise For a Finishing Touch

There is one more finishing touch to add in this image. Traditional black and white photography would generally have some film grain. As this was a digital photo, you don’t get the grainy quality, but add it with the noise filter.

Duplicate the background layer by dragging to the new layer icon on the layers palette. In this way, we leave the original untouched and can remove the effect by merely deleting the layer.

With Background copy selected, go to Filter > Noise > Add Noise. Set the amount between 3-5 %, Distributed Gaussian and Monochromatic checked or unchecking the preview box in the add noise dialog. Then click on ok. If not adjust the noise amount more to liking or cancel out of it.

7. Completed Image with Selective Colorization

This is the final result of black and white selective color effects in adobe photoshop.

 Effects In Adobe Photoshop

Click on Below Video: Complete Color Correction Process in Photoshop


KSHITIJ VIVAN is an authorized training partner of MAAC Ahmedabad at CG Road and Satellite Road. Students from different cities such as Kota and Bikaner come here to join Maac Animation courses. MAAC also helps these students to get the best job placements according to their talents and skills to get the best start in their Professional Careers.

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Photoshop Tips for Beginners

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